Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Analysis Of The Deepwater Horizon Study Group

BP leadership along with partners did not have proper governance and process to evaluate the risk that they are willing to take. The employee at every level does not know how much risk to take nor did any corporate policy exist to guide them. Having zero risk tolerance and zero safety defects in these complex operations ensure there are no human losses. The analysis of the Deepwater Horizon Study Group (2011) (p.11) shows that the leadership was concerned about how much money was spent in excess and did not address previous violations or preventive steps. Instead of downplaying, BP could have accessed the situation, analyzed, and communicated just before and after the explosions from an organizational behavior perspective. Communication is an important tool and basic needs of any organization to effectively discuss or write to their employees, clients, external vendors, and the government to govern internal process and enhance its customer experiences. Communication Employees communicate with each other for effectively carrying out corporate responsibilities. As Robbins and Judge (2014) explains employee shares and conveys ideas and information through communication using four of its major functions such as â€Å"control, motivation, emotional expression and information† (p. 299). The offshore oil-drilling job is complex and needs engineering expertise. BP had undertaken deep-water oil drilling at the Macondo well using the Transocean offshore oil rig. It is expected that BP andShow MoreRelatedThe Deepwater Horizon Mobile Offshore Wells Exploratory Platforms1537 Words   |  7 PagesA detonation on the Deepwater Horizon mobile offshore wells-exploratory platforms unit near the Gulf of Mexico, operated by British Petroleum, on April 20, 2010, or known as BP oil spill. The BP oil catastrophe ignited due to high-pressure methane gas by drilling a deep exploratory at Macondo well, reported by Up Stream Online news. The Gulf of Mexico oil sp ill still outlasts as a great size accidental marine oil spill in the records of the petroleum industry. The date, report details, and locationRead MoreBp Oil Spill : Business Law1601 Words   |  7 PagesBP hundreds of thousands of dollars. BP’s goal was to have the ability of capping this specific drilling site for further oil extraction with the least amount of expense and no time to waste (Kurtz, R. S. (2013). Oil Spill Causation and the Deepwater Horizon Spill. Review Of Policy Research, 30(4), 366-380. doi:10.1111/ropr.12026). Because of the manner in which it was capped, the safety protocol was followed much less firmly, saving the company millions. The outcome of this lack of safety protocolRead MoreThe Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill2022 Words   |  9 PagesDeepwater Horizon Oil Spill The Context Before the occurrence of the Deepwater Horizon event, BP had already been labelled as having a horrible safety record. A 2009 report by the United States Department of Labour Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Todd Petterson , 2009), indicated that BP had 270 existing fines of a ‘failure to abate’ and 439 ‘wilful violations’ of various safety protocols. At the time of the disaster the regulators of the oil industry in the United States was theRead MoreStrategic And Value Of Operations Management1599 Words   |  7 Pagesis not about limited functions within a company, but rather, it is about expanding its activities in numerous other areas and sectors (e.g. company-wide) in order to meet the needs of the company, customers, shareholders and stakeholders. This case study will briefly explore the importance of managing activities in today’s modern operations, and why it is critical to understand the strategic and value of operations management. We will examine the British Petroleum (BP) oil spill that occurred out inRead MoreBp Csr3693 Words   |  15 PagesStrategic Corporate Social Responsibilities and Law Contents BP Company Info 3 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Event 4 Summary of the Deepwater Horizon Event 5 Stock price before and after Deepwater Horizon 7 Impact on Stakeholders 8 BP’s Oil Spills and Corporate Social Responsibility 9 Inadequate disclosure on the oil spill event 11 Recommendations for BP to get reputation back 13 Conclusion 14 BP Company Info BP is a global oil and gas company headquartered in London, UnitedRead MoreBps Corporate Social Responsibility1416 Words   |  6 PagesBP Case Study Although BP’s extreme profitability has led to their position within the Fortune 500 Index, their Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010 and subsequent contamination of the Gulf Coast caused many to question the company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) methods. Although the company utilized numerous reporting standards to report their performance, adverse effects caused by the oil spill exposed weaknesses in the company’s strategies and continue to inflict social and environmentalRead MoreCase Study: BP and the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill3602 Words   |  15 Pages......5 Question 3 ............................................................................................................................................................5 How did BP’s history and culture shape decision-making on the Deepwater Horizon rig? .............................5 How did the political and regulatory environment affect decision-making by BP and its partners? ..............6 Question 4 ................................................................................Read MoreBp—Deepwater Horizon Case Study Ethics1883 Words   |  8 Pages------------------------------------------------- BP—Deepwater Horizon Case Study INT1001 Study Skills Module Reading and Writing Skills—Summative Assignment Done by: Mew Hui Ying ------------------------------------------------- Date: 12 February 2013 ------------------------------------------------- Industry: Oil and Gas ------------------------------------------------- Company: British Petrol Contents Page NoRead MoreBp And The Gulf Of Mexico Oil Spill Case Study3246 Words   |  13 Pages BP and the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Case Study Tamatha French Management 6000 Hawaii Pacific University â€Æ' Introduction and Background On April 20, 2010, the petroleum industry suffered the largest maritime disaster oil spill in its history known as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The Deepwater Horizon oil rig that had been working on a well for BP in the Gulf exploded and went up in flames. Subsequently, massive amounts of oil spilled out into the water, threatening the marine life and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Many Benefits of Medicinal Marijuana Essay - 827 Words

The Many Benefits of Medicinal Marijuana When the religious leaders of Nicholas Copernicus time excommunicated him for his radical studies, they ignorantly dismissed a brilliant idea. The idea that the earth revolved around the sun inherently brought controversy upon the traditional styles of science. A controversy our leaders need to examine is the medical use of marijuana. Instead of banning marijuana and ignoring the public voice, our representatives need to examine the facts and effects of marijuana for medical use. Like Copernicus idea that revolutionized science, changing the way we treat our sick and suffering will benefit our society. The effects of legalizing marijuana for only medical purposes will stop unnecessary legal†¦show more content†¦Marijuana is one of the least toxic substances in the whole pharmacopoeia, according to Dr. Lester Grinspoon, Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. Cancer, glaucoma, multiple sclerosis, emphysema, and many others patients could have their quality of life improved with the help of marijuana (Institute of Medical Marijuana). The current state of laws forces desperately ill citizens to find relief on the streets at the risk of being jailed. You never know what potency you are going to get or where it has come from, stated Joyce Turcotte, a former cancer patient who took the advice of her doctor. Her doctor told her to smoke the drug if she has access to it. Currently, the federal government is attacking chronically ill patients for the recommended use of marijuana. McWilliams is currently facing the idea that he might spend the next ten years in jail. The problem arose when he vocalized his means of aquiring the drug. The U.S. attorney in Los Angeles is working on the prosecution right now (National Review). Of all the negative consequences of prohibition, none is as tragic as the denial of medicinal marijuana to the tens of thousands of seriously ill patients who could benefit from its therapeutic use (http://natlmorml.org/medical/index.html). The effects of suppressing and penalizing a treatment drug have and will continue to have negative consequences in our society. The gateway reputation marijuana hasShow MoreRelatedMedicinal Marijuana: Should It Be Legal in All States? Essay1071 Words   |  5 Pageslot of debate on whether or not marijuana should be legal for medicinal purposes in all fifty states. Many people believe that marijuana is an unsuitable substitute for many of the medications we have today. On the other hand, many researchers have conducted extensive studies that have shown how beneficial medicinal marijuana can be. Many states have already picked up on this, and have laws set in place to allow the use of medicinal marijuana. Medicinal marijuana has a wide variety of uses, and shouldRead MoreMedical Marijuana Essay969 Words   |  4 Pages[Medicinal Marijuana] [Heather Bryant] Communication and compostition (COM156) University of Phoenix, Axia College [October 20, 2012] Medicinal Marijuana use in the United States Although many individuals find medical marijuana illegal, and unnecessary, it is a natural herb used to help symptoms caused by chronic illnesses. Over three million Americans use medical marijuana. Medical marijuana is the most widely used drug used to treat chronic illnesses in seventeenRead MoreWhy Not Legalize Marijuana? Essay1173 Words   |  5 PagesMarijuana should be legalized for both recreational and medicinal use because the US economy can reap significant benefits from legalization as well as create an influx of jobs and also to reduce street and gang disputes relating to marijuana. Also, marijuana should be legalized because it has been dealt an unfair hand by society and is justifiably safer than most know it to be. First, marijuana should be legalized in the US for both recreational and medicinal purposes because there is a very substantialRead MoreThe Legalization Of Medicinal Marijuana1382 Words   |  6 Pageslegalisation of medicinal marijuana is a very contro versial topic within Australia. Recently, Victoria took the first steps to legalise medicinal marijuana, referenced in Victorian Government s Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (12th April 2016) and passed by the Victorian Parliament. This is the beginning of â€Å"the process of enabling patients to access medicinal cannabis.† In spite of this forward move, the debate still rages. There are valid and significant stances about whether marijuana shouldRead MoreThe Term Effects Of Marijuana1124 Words   |  5 Pageseffects marijuana has on the human body? Marijuana is now being used more as medicinal and recreational use, and its usage is constantly increasing among many young adults in today’s society. You should know the effects of Marijuana and its medicinal purposes so you can make the choice of whether or not to use it and whether you will use it for medicinal purposes. With extensive scholarly research, today we will be discussing intermediate, long term eff ects and medicinal purposes of marijuana. AccordingRead MoreEssay about Medical Marijuana1525 Words   |  7 PagesMedical Marijuana Marijuana is medicine. It has been used for thousands of years to treat a wide variety of ailments. Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) was legal in the United States for all purposes - industrial and recreational, as well as medicinal until 1937. Today, only eight Americans are legally allowed to use marijuana as medicine. NORML is working to restore marijuanas availability as medicine. Medicinal Value Marijuana, in its natural form, is one of the safest therapeutically Read MoreDo You Love Me Mary Jane?1636 Words   |  7 PagesKaleka was prescribed medicinal marijuana. When Kaleka was interviewed he stated that the medicinal marijuana works. She feels that it is disappointing that people do not see marijuana as a good option to cure people. In the interview Kaleka said â€Å"Personally I know that medicinal marijuana works. I think its disappointing that people who might really need it, someone whos gone through a tragedy like that, doesnt have access to that option.(Kaleka) Not only did medicinal marijuana treat his illnessesRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1581 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"war on drugs† since the late 1900’s, the legalization of marijuana has been a popular topic within the past couple of years. This topic is very controversial due to the fact that many people are unable to see past the bad rap that cannabis has accumulated over past years. Among the other aspects that have already given marijuana a bad reputation, some people are trying to find more and more reasons to postpone the legalization of marijuana. Since the legalization of cannabis in Colorado, WashingtonRead MoreLegalization of Marjuana637 Words   |  3 PagesMarijuana should be legal because it has several medicinal benefits, does not cause as much harm as alcohol or tobacco, and has been used by several dignitaries. The origins of marijuana date clear back to before recorded history, but the earliest written mention of it was in 1500 B.C. in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, titled the Rh-Ya. Emperor Fu also appears to have mentioned it in 2900 B.C., claiming that cannabis was a very popular medicine that possessed both ying and yang. It’s also mentioned severalRead MoreThe Ban Of Medical Marijuana1090 Words   |  5 Pagesand used medical marijuana to save her life. Her parents had tried almost every medication to try and save her by the time she was two-years-old. Some nights she would get fifty seizures each night. Finally, her parents were able to get her a medical marijuana card in Colorado, and the new medication immediately stopped the seizures (Gummow, 8 Miraculous, para. 4, alternet.org). This is just one example of how unjust the ban of medicinal marijuana is. The ban of medical marijuana is unjust because

Decision-Making in Pluralist, Hierarchical and Consensus...

Decision Making Process . Introduction Robbins (1998: 103) states that decisions are choices made from two or more alternatives. Decisions are made as a reaction to a problem. That is, there is a discrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state requiring consideration of alternative courses of action. This however requires any person in the position where he/she must make decisions to consider some aspects regarding decision-making. This not only includes relevant information but also the application of knowledge and/or skills to use this information to realize a decision. Decision making and its processes are†¦show more content†¦Such problems deserve special treatment.† Rowe and Boulgarides (1992: 16) on the other hand categorized decisions into three: (1) Routine decisions – involves the carrying out and following of an organizations goal, prescribed policies and/or rules; (2) Creative decisions – whereby new or novel approaches are needed to handle more complex problems; and (3) Negotiated decisions – occurring in situations where conflict in goals or approaches to problem solving need to be resolved by involving participants. Decision-Making Processes in a Hierarchical Political System . Hierarchy, per Encyclopaedia Britannica’s definition, is â€Å"[†¦] a ranking of positions of authority, often associated with a chain of command and control. The term is derived from the Greek words hieros (â€Å"sacred†) and archein (â€Å"rule† or â€Å"order†).† Combining the two words, hierarchy can be termed as â€Å"a sacred rule or order†. A hierarchy tries to place mankind in a class order within a structure order, often defined by laws, customs, rules or conduct or other forms of structuring mechanism. Hierarchies are used to make decisions in rational ways, to avoid confusion, to order people around in a way that operates efficiently, and for other reasons. Hierarchy is as old as human existence on the planet earth.Show MoreRelatedOrganizational Theroy2285 Words   |  10 PagesTopic 4: Power, Resistance and Decision Making Developed by Dr. Ruth Barton Dr. Margaret Heffernan, OAM RMIT University Aims of the lecture Questions of power Hoe power works; 4 faces of power Resistance and control Types of resistance Decision making Theories of decision making; factors that enhance and limit decision making RMIT University ©2012 2 Questions of Power Who has power? How is influence achieved? What is power? Several dimensions and bases RMIT University ©2012 How is powerRead MoreSystems Thinking2595 Words   |  11 Pageschaos (which I will be using in the second part of this TMA) are perfectly illustrated by the generic diagram figure 1, appendix 1. Namely it is unbounded, lacks definition and certainty with varying emergent issues. The LGA’s organisational structure, hierarchy and number of stakeholders lend themselves to the complexity of the messy situation. Each department is evolving and growing to become the being that the organisation desires it’s a living entity much like an organism. It learns and definesRead MoreEssay The Future of Public Administration1772 Words   |  8 Pages The responsibility for policy decisions lies with the political members of the executive (those members who have been elected or appointed to give political direction to government and, customarily, career civil servants). By custom, civil servants are protected from public blame or censure for their advice. The acts of their administration may, however, be subject to special judicial controls from which no member of the executive can defend them. Structure of civil service Civil servicesRead MorePower, Politics, And Decision Making2144 Words   |  9 Pagescapacity (to dominate or resist) located in social structures. It demonstrates that power is one of the key things in both society and organisation. This essay aims to evaluate three main perspectives on power, and to indicate how can it be used and distributed in different approaches in modern organisations. Firstly, three major power views will be briefly introduced to display their features. Next, the sources of power, politics, and decision-making will be presented before discussing three main conceptsRead MoreThe Management of Organizational Culture3951 Words   |  16 Pageshelping them to interpret and interact with the world in which they find themselves. Australian ‘mateship’ behaviour, for example, served early male white settlers in a harsh and sparsely populated world much better than the maintenance of the hierarchical class distinctions typical of the world from which the y had come. From such new, adaptive patterns of behaviour arise new beliefs, such as a belief in egalitarianism. These new behaviours, values and beliefs, together with the associated ritualsRead MoreHuman Resource Management, Industrial Relations and Achieving Management Objectives11312 Words   |  46 Pagesemployees are kept at armslength.8 HRM strategies may be influenced by the decisions taken on strategy (the nature of the business currently and in the future) and by the structure of the enterprise (the manner in which the enterprise is structured or organized to meet its objectives)9. In an enterprise with effective HRM policies and practices, the decisions on HRM are also strategic decisions influenced by strategy and structure, and by external factors such as trade unions, the labour market situationRead MoreHofstede: Cultures and Organizations - Software of the Mind Culture as Mental Programming9246 Words   |  37 Pagesprevious paragraphs. Not only those activities sup posed to refine the mind are included in culture two, but also the ordinary and menial things in life: greeting, eating, showing or not showing feelings, keeping a certain physical distance from others, making love, or maintaining body hygiene. CULTURE It is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another. It is a collective phenomenon, because it is at least partly shared with peopleRead MoreRole of Hr in Organization10279 Words   |  42 Pagesstrategic roles have not replaced traditional approaches but, rather, have been grafted on, giving rise to a variety of hybrid HR forms. 2 Continuity and Change: The Role of the HR Function in the Modern Public Sector Introduction The reform of structures, systems and processes within public services over the past 20 years has been well documented at an international level (Massey and Pyper, 2005; Boyne et al., 2004; Skalen, 2004; Harel and Tzafrir, 2002; Kessler et al., 2000; Bach and della RoccaRead MoreRole of Communication Employee Involvement in the Process of an Organizational Change23165 Words   |  93 Pages1. INTRODUCTION amp; BACKGROUND 1.1. Introduction Change, in general, indicates any act of making something different. The factors that necessitate change in organizations are broadly categorized into people, technology, information processing and communication, and competition. Some changes in the organization occur suddenly without the conscious efforts of the people. These are called unplanned changes. On the other hand, some changes are initiated by the management to accomplish certain goalsRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pages analyzing and exploring organization theory the book increases the understanding of a field that in recent years has become ever more fragmented. Organization theory is central to managing, organizing and reflecting on both formal and informal structures, and in this respect you will find this book timely, interesting and valuable. Peter Holdt Christensen, Associate Professor, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark McAuley et al.’s book is thought-provoking, witty and highly re levant for understanding

Considering The Present Free Essays

In childhood and throughout our lives we live, we love, and we learn. These learning experiences can be either positive or negative and they can quickly be forgotten or can stay with us forever. Throughout my lifetime I have gone through my fair share of both positive and negative experiences. We will write a custom essay sample on Considering The Present or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is through these experiences that I have become the woman I am today. Two of these positive experiences that I have gone through in the course of my life that have played the largest part in the woman I am today are; the birth of my first son and getting clean and sober. Both of these experiences came with a variety of mixed emotions in the beginning but in the end were very rewarding. I can still remember the day the doctors told me I was pregnant. That immediate sense of fear swallowed me whole and time seemed to stand still. It was not until a couple of months later that I realized there was no changing the situation and that I needed to make the very best of it. Finding out I was pregnant started out as a very scary experience but ultimately was one of the most positive and rewarding experiences I have ever endured. After the fear settled a little bit I was able to really start thinking about my life and what I needed to change. Up until that day at the doctors I was living day by day doing what I needed to do for me and no one else. I had no job, I was living with my parents and my only source of excitement came from the local bar rooms late at night. I knew things needed to change and I set out on a mission to make that change happen. Alone and afraid I was able to swallow my pride and ask my family for help and the guidance to get my life back on track before this baby entered our world. All through my pregnancy I knew I loved my unborn son more than I have ever loved anything in this world. I knew that my life was no longer mine rather it was my son and I’s and that I needed to be the very best parent I could be. Although I was not able to find a real job I was babysitting for other family members and earning my own money. I was able to buy almost everything that was needed for my unborn son all on my own. Two months before I was due to give birth I finally got my own apartment. I was starting to feel like my own person and I was not so scared anymore. Kaidon Douglas Bishop entered this world on July 26th, 2005. It is a day that I will never forget. That immediate feeling of unconditional love overwhelmed me. This little boy had changed my life forever and for the first time in my life I felt like I did something right and I had a reason to live the right way. I chose this experience to discuss first because I believe it has had the most profound impact on my life and the person I am today. Finding out I was pregnant was a huge eye opener and motivator. There has been no other experience in my life that has made me as happy and satisfied as this one. The second experience I have chosen to discuss is my journey through addiction and into sobriety. This is yet another experience that has had a lasting impression on my life. At about the age of 16 I went through some very hard times and rather than deal with all the feelings and emotions that came with those difficulties I turned to drugs to bury those feelings. Things quickly escalated and in only a few short months my life was turned completely upside down. My drug addiction was the only thing in my life that mattered and I did not care about anything except my next high and where it was coming from. The ages of 16 through 21 were by far the worst years of my life. My addiction to opiates was running my life. Throughout the five years of my addiction I did several stints in and out of County jails, State prisons and rehabs. When I was not in one of those places I was homeless, bouncing around from drug house to drug house when I could and sleeping on the streets when I had no other option. My final rock bottom was when my own family had completely shut me out of their lives. It was at this point I knew that something had to change and I needed to get help. I had nothing and nobody and it was a very lonely time for me. I began making phone calls to substance abuse programs all over New York State hoping and praying that somebody would want to help. I was finally accepted into a suboxone program for opiate addiction and once again had someone on my side. Slowly I was able to completely get off from the heroin and pain killers and regain some sense of control. I understand that this sounds like a very negative experience but I have chosen it as one of the more significant experiences in my life because the outcome was so positive and rewarding and to this day affects my everyday life and decisions. Once I was clean and my family saw my progress I was accepted back in to open arms and a boat load of support. I doubt highly I would have ever been able to beat this addiction and get my life back without the help of my family. This experience not only taught me t he value of family but that persistence and working hard to get something you really want does pay off. How to cite Considering The Present, Papers Considering The Present Free Essays Getting my first apartment 3. Having my two beautiful daughters 4. Becoming the Head Cake Decorator on my Job 5. We will write a custom essay sample on Considering The Present or any similar topic only for you Order Now Returning to school Each of these experiences has had an amazing impact on my life in one way or another. Graduating from high school was a big deal for me as well as my family. I was the first of my grandmother’s grandkids to graduate from high school. After graduating from high school I worked hard and paid to rent my first apartment. Having my own space and becoming independent was something I have always wanted because I had to share everything growing up. I have two beautiful daughters whom have changed my life for the best. Before having the girls I was a party animal. They have slowed me down and made me realize what Is Important in life. I have always liked to design things growing up. Becoming a head cake decorator has allowed me to show my creativity and provide for my family, Last, but not least returning back to school to further my education has been a goal that I have always anted to accomplish. Obtaining my degree from Gifford will help me to provide an even better lifestyle for my daughters. When I graduated from high school, I was so proud of myself. I accomplished something that none of my grandmothers grandkids had ever done. Getting my own apartment taught me how to be a strong individual. I worked hard and maintained my own space which some young ladies at the age of 19 couldn’t do. Having my kids was the best thing that ever happened to me. It taught me how to love unconditionally and genuinely. I felt great that I had a home of my own to raise them in. Becoming head cake decorator was a goal that I accomplished that was really unexpected. I was the backup cake decorator. When the head decorator took a higher paying Job she nominated me to take her space which was a great accomplishment. Returning back to school has been one of my biggest dreams and I am overwhelmed with happiness on how well I am doing after being out of school for over ten years. In my first class I finished with a B I great for and proud to be a student at Gifford university. How to cite Considering The Present, Papers

The Dispute Between Biggie and Tupac free essay sample

Many people are aware about the dispute during the meld asss between the West coast and East coast rap stars Outpace Shaker and the Notorious B. I. G. (Jordan, 2011). Taking over the West coast Outpace dominated his side of the map. While the Notorious B. I. G. Aka Biggie was representing the East coast with a new style of Rap that streamed thought the city of New York. Fans from coast to coast have recognized the up coming new rap stars and the talent that they have brought to Hip-Hop. Each side of the coast supported either Biggie or Outpace.With the new style of Gangs Rap hat had been introduce from Outpace and Biggie, the two Rap stars were competing to become the best rap artist of their time. Striving to be the next hop-hop icon, Biggie and Outpace bumped heads one day about a track they had made together. The feud began between these two rap artists, and eventually became bigger than either one of them could ever Imagine (Jordan, 2011). Christopher Wallace was born In Brooklyn, New York, May 21, 1972. He was raised In the poor Brooklyn neighborhood that had violence surrounding it. Dropping out of high school at the age of seventeen, Biggie became a crack dealer when he was only helve, which he proclaimed was his only source of income. Hustling ones way was a common life for a young Black man trying to make a living in the ghetto and put food on the table for his family (Biography Channel 2013). His career choices involved many risks. Biggie took a trip to North Carolina for a routine drug exchange turned out to be Biggies unlucky day. Being the new soon-to-be MAC, Biggie had a nine-month stay behind bars (Biography Channel 2013).Once released, Biggie borrowed a friends four-track tape recorder and produced some hip-hop tracks in a basement. The tapes were then passed around the city and played at local radio station In New York. Christopher Wallace named himself Bulge, for his weight. Biggie was a Black man who was overweight: dark skinned, and had a little crook in his eye, he was a charmer and loving husband to his wife (Notorious B. I. G. Biography). Biggie was a young superstar in the making and was introduced to a producer by the name of Sean Combs.Once Combs heard Baggies early tapes he was mesmeric by his unique style, Puffy went to sign Biggie to his new label Bad Boy Records. This was Biggies first step on becoming one of the best rappers ever to live. Being signed to the top record label and representing Bad Boy Records got Biggie to stand out and allow him to show everyone that he wasnt Just an ordinary rapper from the hood. With all the confidence that had been brought to him, Biggies mind was set to become the best there ever was. Biggie and Sean Combs a. K. A Puffy worked on the artist first album for some time and before he knew It, The Notorious B.I. G. Was born. After falling all of his music on the album he soon released his First album called Ready to Die. After getting numerous hits the first couple of weeks Biggies first productive year Biggie was named MAC of the year at the 1995 Billboard Music Awards (Biography Channel 2013). Once Biggie had stated that he was the best, he then went off to go back to his hometown to see his friends and ran into some trouble with the law multiple times, on charges that ranged from beatings, to drugs and weapons, this was not the step Biggie wanted to head in after being awarded the best MAC of the year (Lindsey, 2011).After all the charges he had to face Biggie soon met an MAC by he name of Outpace Shaker who is sighed to Death Row Records, and the two eventually become good friends. Outpace supported Biggie and was often giving him advice on producing tapes and his unique lyrical flow. However, their friendship took a big turn to the most violent era of hip-hop music on November 30, 1994 (Lindsey, 2011).While Biggie and Puffy were at a recording session at Quad Recording Studios in Manhattan, Outpace went their to record with another MAC for his third studio album, Me Against The World at the same time, but in the lobby, Outpace was held at gunpoint and robbed of $40,000 worth of Jewelry. Outpace was shot five times. Biggie rushed down Just in time to see Outpace being loaded into an ambulance before he could say anything to him Road, 2011). Extending a middle finger while dying, Outpace blamed Biggie for the shooting and said that Biggie knew about it and failed to warn him.Even though Biggie had nothing to do with the shooting, this sparked the East Coast, West Coast rivalry. Outpace later recovered from his injuries of the shooting in Manhattan. During this encounter, Biggie had admitted that he was scared for his life. Biggie never responded or acted to any of Tubas dieses. Outpace attacked Biggie with provocative statements, even starting rumors that there was a love affair between Outpace and Biggies wife Faith Evans (Biography Channel 2013). After the whole dispute the entire country became divided into two hip-hop groups. The West side and the East side.In this case Biggie was signed with Sean Combs to Bad Boy Records and Outpace was signed to Death Row Records with Marion Segue Knight. After Outpace arranged a meeting with Biggie during 1995, Outpace whispered into Biggies ear saying Im Just trying to sell some records. This was a slap in the ace for Biggie and never thought that this would come down to publicity and lies. Unfortunately, On September 7th, 1996, it became very real when Outpace was in Lass Vegas staying at the MGM Grand hotel. After seeing the Mike Tyson boxing match, he was leaving the hotel when he got in a fight inside.Shortly after, Outpace was shoot and murdered in a drive-by shooting in Lass Vegas after he was leaving the Grand hotel (Biography Channel 2013). Outpace was a very strong individual and wouldnt let anything stop him from reaching the top or slowing him down. After Outpace was shot, he was immediately rushed to the hospital. Unfortunately, he fought in the E. R. For six days until god had taken his sole to the angels to let him Rest in Peace. Rumors of Baggies involvement quickly took place and began to spread. A few weeks after Tubas murder, there was an anti-violence convention that was held in Harlem, New York.Biggie was one of the few rappers to not make and appearance at the convention. This was not a good sign for Biggie and it seemed like he didnt care about the convention and for Tubas death. Fingers started to point towards him and Bad Boy Records. Even though Outpace was killed before he could find out who shot owe records were very disturbed about the shooting. Having one of the best West coast rappers pass away before he could reach his full potential took a toll on the West coast. Outpace wasnt Just a rapper; he had a diverse rage in poetry and song writing, not to mention he was also in the acting field as well (Lindsey, 2011).Outpace was a very strong, talented young individual who never stopped trying to become the best that he could be. This was a shock to the whole West coast and his widespread fan base. But Biggie was the one that had to listen and deal with all the controversy about the shooting. Prior to when Outpace was shoot and killed he was with a member from the Www-Tang Clan. They were Just hanging out when both of them were shot and robbed. They both survived the shooing and when Outpace recovered yet again from a shooting he came back with fire in his eyes, accusing Biggie and Sean Combs for setting up the attack on him.Both Biggie and Sean Combs denied the accusations from Death Row Records. Outpace didnt stop there, he continued to add on to the controversy about the shooting and mentioned to the East Coast rap world about the single he had made called Hit Me Up, in which Outpace claimed that had slept with Biggies wife, Faith Evans Road, 2011). With more and more conflicts being brought up, the dispute between Biggie and Outpace had escalated rapidly. Biggie was now knee deep in situation and was frustrated with all the drama being brought to his way and problems that he faced. Biggie was now getting to the point that he was scared for his life. Not knowing when he could be shoot, he knew there were people out to get revenge on him. Since Tubas death, Biggie was now focusing on staying alive and always having a pair of eyes behind his head. With maximum security, the ear of knowing that he could be shoot or killed at any point of time, Biggie made sure to live everyday like it was his last. Both Biggie and Sean Combs now having a target on their backs were laying low and trying to be secluded from as much publicity as possible and the West side critics that accused Biggie and Combs for organizing the shooting on Outpace.Since the convention that Bad Boy Records failed to make an appearance to for anti-violence, This could have been a big reason why Death Row Records and gangs from the West coast wanted to make a hit on Biggie as retaliation for Tubas death and wanted nothing but revenge. Biggies life was at risk and not knowing what could happen to him at any point of time. The only thing more powerful than a premature death is a death foretold. When Notorious BIG closed his second album, sasss Life After Death, with the track Youre Nobody (Till Somebody Kills You), and was promptly murdered Just weeks before its release, hip- hops young icon filled of life and art reached its gruesome end (Lindsey, 2011). Life After Death, won Billboards R and B Album of the Year and MAT Video Music Award for Best Rap Video. This was the uplift that Biggie needed to get past the Drama and Controversy about Tubas death and the shootings prier Tubas death. But top chart placements and platinum records, or even awards cannot measure the albums impact. The stakes were raised, says Www-Tang founder and producer RAZZ. Before Biggie, you might put out anything, now you know, okay, its real out there, you goat come correct, cause this cat (Biggie) is spending time on his sit. Says RAZZ (Notorious B. I. G. Biography). Started from the bottom, to revolving into a hip-hop superstar, Biggie Smalls was a young man who tried to make ends meet at a young n the streets of Brooklyn, New York. Eventually down the road, he ran into some obstacles that almost Jeopardized his career which lead to some time Jail time.But set backs never stopped Biggie from pursuing his passion before he realized that he was going to be a hip-hop legend. With his first album Ready To Die, which told the story of his life, from a drug dealer to rapper. Biggie had two hits form his album, first was Juicy which went gold within weeks and by the end of the year the album was triple platinum and had reached the Billboard Top 5 Rap Single and his second hit Big APIPA reached number one on the Billboard. Biggies first album Ready To Die proceeded to gain popularity throughout 1995, eventually selling over two million copies.With the albums success, Biggie became the most noticeable figure in the hip-hop industry, with his god given talents and realistic style of writing Notorious B. L. G. s multi- platinum Ready to Die made him a superstar (Notorious B. I. G. Biography). On March 9th, 1997, Biggie was attending a party in Los Angels, he had just came out of the Soul Train Music Awards and was getting escorted into his SUB. Shortly after, Biggie and his crew were on the way back to their hotel in Los Angels, another vehicle approached Biggies G. M. C.Suburban in front of the Peterson Automobile Museum and opened fire on the side of the car where Notorious B. I. G. Was sitting (Notorious B. I. G. Biography). He got shot seven times when he was sitting in the passenger seat when a car pulled up and unloaded a semi-automatic weapon. He was rushed to a near by hospital dying as every minute would act like one step closer to heaven. The worldwide hip-hop icon and an inspiration to millions of fans, rappers, and to his loved ones had passed away. The Notorious B. I. G. Was finally at ease; up in heaven with the angles, god had rested his soul in peace.With Biggies death, brought a shock to the hip-hop nation and to the rap industry. His presence and unique style that he had brought to the rap game had influenced many artists and people from coast to coast. With having two of the nations best rappers gone within the same year really took a toll in the hip-hop industry. Both rappers had turned the nations view of hip-hop and had introduced the style of Gangs Rap. Biggies style of rap was more Real Life and would write about his personal life and he struggles that he had to overcome growing up in the ghetto.For Outpace, his style was mostly formed with poetic ambitions and brought a powerful feel to his style and literature. What these two rap artists have brought to hip-hop will never be forgotten and will always have an impact on what todays hip-hop genre and how Biggie and Outpace introduced their own style of rap. This is how hip-hop truly originated its unique styles of rap, and how they influenced rap artists, producers, and up-coming stars that are trying to make it Just like Biggie and Outpace had to do. With all the introverts that took upon the West coast and East coast rivalries between Notorious B.I. G. And Outpace Shaker came to an end. Each side of the coast was no longer in a dispute with each others style of rap and who was the better rapper. Both Biggie and Outpace had earned their respect threw the songs that were produced and the stories behind the lyrics. Before Biggie had been shot and killed, he took a visit to the West coast to perform and show respect throughout hip-hop and Outpace Shaker. This was the ending of the two rivalries and territorial wars that originated from the two icons that made hip-hop into what it is today.The deaths upon Biggie and Outpace have still two murders that are still unsolved, the controversy of drama that the history of hip- hop has seen and experienced when Biggie and Outpace were murdered will never be forgotten and will always be remember as the two best hip-hop legends to enter the rap game. The dispute between the Notorious B. I. G. And Outpace Shaker eventually had been settled but sadly took Outpace Shakers life first. A legend that had inspiration to the hip-hop industry, a mentor to various artists around the coast, unfortunately he was unable to reach his full potential as an artist. As for the Notorious B.I. G. Aka Biggie Smalls, was fortunate enough to finalize his up-coming new album. A twenty-four song, double disc collection that ended up being one of the best albums ever produced. Once the new album had been released Life After Death Baggies life abruptly ended weeks after releasing his album. Once Life After Death had been released before Notorious B. L. G. s death, Biggie was established as one of the greatest rapper ever (Notorious B. I. G. Biography). Without having the two most dominant rap icons in the hip-hop industry, left a bitter silence for hip-hop and he fans across the nation. Having both Outpace and Biggie die within months of each other, the battles were over and the dispute between one another had ended. During this era of hip-hop, two rappers by the name of the Notorious B. I. G. And Outpace Shaker, both had their own unique style of rap. Outpace was more of a poetic type of composer, while Biggie had gangs credentials and street knowledge. Biggie would incorporate his lifestyle from the ghetto and composed his stories into lyrics that inspired fans around the nation and many rap artists. Between the West Coast andEast Coast rivalry, the controversy with Biggie and Outpace wasnt Just a battle for respect and credit to who was a better artist. Jealously took over, both running into trust issues with one another which eventually exploded into hatred and rivalry. With many conspiracy theories that are still filled with unanswered questions, the killings of Outpace and Notorious have still yet to discover who murdered them. With this all being said the dispute between one another had eventually faded away, leaving many fans confused and upset about to two rap icons gone. Who was to be blamed for the killings?

Friday, April 24, 2020

Theatre Research Paper Sample Essay Example

Theatre Research Paper Sample Essay Introduction Traditionally, a theatre has always played an essential role in the life of human society. It was one of the most popular arts, and it remains quite favorite for many people in different countries, regardless a tremendous technological progress the humankind has made in recent years that seemed to put the theatre under a threat of gradual degradation. Nevertheless, the theatre as an art is still popular and keeps progressing in many countries of the world. In this respect, it is particularly important that the theatre keeps progressing in the UK, the motherland of one of the most outstanding play writers of the world and undoubtedly the best English speaking play writers, William Shakespeare. It is particularly noteworthy that the theatre has been recognized as a national treasure of the United Kingdom that found its reflection in the creation of the Royal National Theatre of London, one of the most important cultural institutions of the kingdom and probably of Europe and even the world. In fact, it is very important that the theatre has received the status of the Royal National Theatre because it underlines its significance for the whole nation. This is why it is necessary to trace the history of creation and development of the Royal National Theatre and its current position, perspectives, and the role of British society. The history of the creation of the Royal National Theatre Speaking about the Royal National Theatre of London, it is primarily necessary to dwell upon the history of its creation because it is very important to realize what was the reason for the creation of the theatre and what was the initial goal of its creators. This will obviously provide ample opportunities for better understanding the nature and the role of the theatre for British society. We will write a custom essay sample on Theatre Research Paper Sample specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Theatre Research Paper Sample specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Theatre Research Paper Sample specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In this respect, it should be said that physically the Royal National Theatre is a relatively new formation because of its historical accounts a bit more than forty years since the date of its foundation. It should be pointed out that the idea of the creation of the Royal National Theatre was not new and it appeared not fort but much more years ago. In fact, it is estimated that the idea of the creation of the National Theatre originates from late 19the century, but it is hardly possible to define a precise date when this idea had been shaped and had got started to develop. Nonetheless, it is possible to refer to William Archer and H. Granville Barker who in the early 20th century, to put it more precisely in 1904, in their Preface to a National Theatre underlined that â€Å"†¦ the National Theatre must be its advertisement – must impose itself on public notice, not by posters and column advertisements in the newspapers, but by the very fact of its ample, dignified, and liberal existence† (1907). They defined its basic goals as follows: â€Å"It must bulk large in the social and intellectual life of London†¦ It must not even have an air of appealing to especially literary and cultured class. It must be visibly and unmistakably a popular institution, making a large appeal to the whole community†¦ It will be seen that the theatre we propose would be a National Theatre in this sense, that it would be from the first conditionally – and, in the event of success, would become absolutely – the property of the nationà ¢â‚¬  (Archer and Barker 1907, p.5). It is obvious that the National Theatre was initially viewed as the theatre for large masses of people, as a popular theatre that would be accessible and understandable for all; that would attract people to the art and spread the culture into masses. In fact, it is possible to estimate that the Royal National Theatre was thought of as a theatre that could be a cultural core of the nation. Gradually, these ideas were developing and eventually they had been realized on October 22, 1963, when the National Theatre headed by Laurence Olivier started its work with the opening night of Hamlet starring Peter O’Toole. This date is traditionally considered to be the date of the foundation of the National Theatre of London, which was later attributed as the Royal National Theatre of London in 1988. The main events in the history of the Royal National Theatre Since the date of its foundation, the Royal National Theatre has faced some peaks and troughs, but the theatre is still accessible and may be proud of its history. In this respect, it worth to mention that despite its relatively short history, starting with 1963, there have been produced over 600 plays, and nowadays there are over 1,000 performances a year, given by a company of 150 actors to over 600,000 of people (Callow 1997). It is quite remarkable that the Royal National Theatre started in premises at the Old Vic and it did not have a new building as well as it did not receive a new building as it had been initially promised. In fact, the National Theatre did not have a permanent home until 1976, when Denys Lasun’s National Theatre building was opened (Callow 1997). Probably, the latter fact was also a result of the change of the director because in 1973 Peter Hall â€Å"took over the dictatorship† (Cohen and Smith 1997, p.301) in the National Theatre. It is under his run the National Theatre of London, and in 1976-1977 the Theatre opened its new buildings in the South bank of the Thames. And only more than a decade ago, in 1988 the National Theatre got a new name. This year the name of the company was changed to the Royal National Theatre of London (Callow 1997). But it is not only the name that was changed but so was the director. As a result, in 1988 Richard Eyre took over as a director of the Royal National Theatre. He was later succeeded by Trevor Nunn in 1997 and Nicholas Hytner in 2003. Nowadays, the Royal National Theatre â€Å"engages many of England’s talented actors, directors, and designers to produce its repertory of classics and modern plays† (Hunkin 2004, p.106). Among its most successful performances that made the Royal National Theatres of London recognizable all over the world may be named Cats, Les Miserable and many others.Nonetheless, it still worth to mention that the problem with the permanent home the theatre lacked at the beginning of its existence, was not the only problem the Royal National Theatre faced. There were also problems concerning the popularity of the theatre and sometimes the lack of innovations that often put the theatre into crises that marked the change of its directors. Not surprisingly that the recent years were marked by often changes of the Theatre’s directors compared to the past years. Nicholas Hytner as an Artistic Director of the Royal National Theatre It should be said that the appointment of Nicholas Hytner as an Artistic Director of the Royal National Theatre was the result of the stagnation of the theatre and the obvious necessity of changes that were vitally important for further development of the theatre. At the same time, Nicholas Hytner was perceived in different ways as a director of the Royal National Theatre of London. Nonetheless, it is necessary to underline that he realised his mission and the role of the theatre for British society. For instance, at the beginning of his work in the Royal National Theatre, he emphasized that â€Å"it is a great time to be a national theatre and to rise to the challenge to living up to our name. We want to tell the stories that chart the way the nation is changing. We want to bring front-line reports from new communities and generations, and we want to see the present redefined in the context of the past† (Hunkin 2004, p.59). In such a way it seems that he understands the challenges the theatre faces in the current situation. As a result, he initially planned to adopt the theatre to the current needs of the society that was changing. It is an undeniable fact that nowadays, British society is getting to be more heterogeneous, more diverse, and it tends to be rather multicultural that the theatre should take into consideration. On assessing the role of Nicholas Hytner for the Royal National Theatre and its progress, it is necessary to point out that his work is highly controversial. On the one hand, he tends to be innovative and appeals to use new original forms but, on the other hand, his policy is considered to be too radical that often leads to conflicts and even the protest of some part of the audience. To better understand such a situation and the position and policy of Nicholas Hytner, it is necessary to draw some examples and basic concepts of his policy. For instance, Nicholas Hytner underlines the importance of the theatre at large and the Royal National Theatre in particular as educational tools that should be accessible for British children, which as he states ‘are robbed.’ In other words, the new director of the Royal National Theatre estimates that â€Å"a cultural apartheid is being created in which children from state schools are missing out on theatre and art† (Hunkin 2004, p.152). In this respect, it should be said that, to a certain extent, he is right because children from state schools are deprived of a possibility to get acquainted with art and theatre because of the lack of funding. As a result, the â€Å"pillars of British culture† (Hunkin 2004, p.166) remain a kind of terra incognita for the vast majority of British children. However, on the other hand, what would the British children, which Nicholas Hytner cares so much about, see in the Royal National Theatre headed by this Artistic Director? One of the basic concepts of his policy is the idea that the theatre should be offensive since, according to him, â€Å"the Western theatre was invented in Athens precisely to put on stage feelings that were too dangerous to experience in real life† (Hunkin 2004, p.218). Not surprisingly that he considers that offense in a way is a part of the theatre. As a result, it is possible to speak that such a concept seems to be too radical for the director of the Royal National Theatre of London and in such a context the recent protests of the Sikh community eventually resulting in the closure of a play are quite logical and demonstrate the degree of radicalism in the policy of the new Artistic Director. The predecessors of Nicholas Hytner and difference in their policy However, despite certain radicalism that seems to be typical for the policy of Nicholas Hytner, he is a successor of the policy started by his predecessors. In fact, his primary motivating factor is the necessity to sustain the development of the theatre and keep its popularity among people. In other words, the Royal National Theatre should progress and remain close to ordinary British people, understandable and interesting for them. Not surprisingly that â€Å"Hytner’s approach to the theatre will not be seen like a million miles away from that of his predecessors† (Hunkin 2004, p.322). Nonetheless, there are some differences if not in the policy then, at least in the objectives Nicholas Hytner faces compared with his predecessors. For instance, it is not a secret that Trevor Nunn, the producer of famous Cats and Les Miserable, â€Å"became the centre of controversy for his decision to stage so-called extravagant, commercial production in the theatre† (Hunkin 2004, p..325) while one of the main tasks of Nicholas Hytner’s policy is to prevent the Royal National Theatre of London from commercialisation and the increase of the role of commercial productions. By the way, business productions have always been used by the directors of the Royal National Theatre to make this institution more financially independent and stable. And this is probably the main difference between Nicholas Hytner’s strategic goals and his predecessors. The role of the Royal National Theatre for British cultural life Apparently, it is difficult to underestimate the part of the Royal National Theatre in the life of British society. It is even possible to estimate that the theatre is a cornerstone of the cultural life of the British society because it sustains the uniqueness of the national theatre, art, and culture at large. Naturally, nowadays the Royal National Theatre has to overcome the resistance that the new pop culture poses before traditional British theatrical art. In fact, it is hardly possible to deny that the contemporary society is characterized by an extremely high level of consumerism that affects the attitude of people to the theatre and art at large. In such a situation the Royal National Theatre of London seems to be a rare exception from general rules of the consumer society which appreciate primarily the artistic success and not commercial one. Furthermore, nowadays British society and the Royal National Theatre face new challenges such as the spread of new cultures in the UK resulting from an increasing number of immigrants from different countries of the world. As a result, the UK becomes an unprecedentedly multicultural nation where different culture should live in harmony, and in such a situation the role of the Royal National Theatre is hardly possible to underestimate since art has power to unite people, regardless their ethnic or racial differences, social status, educational level, etc. My mission statement for the Royal National Theatre Taking into account what has been just mentioned above, it is possible to define the perspectives and the primary goals the Royal National Theatre should achieve in the nearest future. If I managed to gain such a public and national recognition that I could become the Artistic Director of the Royal National Theatre of London I Would primarily define the primary objectives, which should correspond to the current social and cultural changes that take place in the British society. In this respect, I believe that one of the main goals of the Royal National Theatre is to sustain its basic principles, according to which the theatre serves to the interest of ordinary people and it should involve possibly larger audience in order to promote art both classical and modern, make it more accessible for people without changing its cultural value. In other words, it is necessary to develop traditions of British theatre as a branch of art and the Royal National Theatre should be a kind of a beacon for the broad audience and for other shows that are currently too commercialized. At the same time, it seems to be inevitable that in perspective the Royal National Theatre would absorb rich traditions of other cultures that are currently growing in power in the UK, such as Indian for instance, and eventually, the theatre would contribute to the harmonization of the new multicultural society using art.